In the past centuries, some new patterns have been originated gradually in the urbanized people’s life, especially with the extension of urbanism and most of its effects have caused direct influence on different directions.For example the necessaries which have been created by the new home architects and their limitations and the way that they has to be covered with the carpets in different sizes, are some of these influences .nowadays woven carpets has different special standards of their sizes , except for costume carpets which can be woven in different sizes according to the orders , of course carpets come in different shapes as well.
CARPETS SHAPES COME INTO TWO TYPES
Foursquare shapes, including square and rectangle that have width and length.
Circle shapes including circle and oval which has a diameter.
Other than these categories there are also some other types such as carpets in octagonal shapes or volume carpets which needs to be ordered. On the other hand carpets according to their sizes get their names and will be categorized. The sizes which are used for woven nowadays carpets are coming here:
Is referred to those carpets which are in the size of 2*3 _ 2.5*3.5 _ 3*3 _ 3*4 _4*6 _5*7_6*10 meters and also some bigger sizes of them are woven as well.
Is referred to some small rugs which their area are usually less than 6 square meters and some of their common sizes are; 1*0.7 - 2*1.5 - 1*1.5 - 2*1.8 - 2.2*1.4 and bigger sizes. “Kalle-ee” or “ sar andaaz” ; it’s one type of “Ghali” with the approximate size of 1*2 or 2*4 or 3*6 meters or even bigger which usually their length is 1.5 or 2 times or even more bigger than its width. This type of rug was more common in the past.
(like the curtain) One kind of finely woven carpets which is used for hanging on the wall with usually the size of 1.8*2.8 meter or 1.5*2.5 or 2*3 meter.
It’s a long carpet with a short width approximately in the sizes of 0.75 to 1.10-meter width and 2.5 to 6-meter length, the usage of this type of carpet is usually for the sides of the rooms or stairs or even narrow passages. In the book “Les tapis D`orient” about the arrangement of carpets is said :
”These carpets dimensions are a remembrance of carpets positions in Iranian halls and rooms, in fact, the main carpet is laid down in the middle of the hall which is called “ Miyaan Farsh” which means middle carpet. This carpet or Ghali will be enclosed from to sides by two other carpets which are “Kenareh” or runners which have the same length and another “Ghali” will complete this collection which is long and narrow and is called “Kalle-ee” and is placed on top side of the main carpet (which was placed in the middle) and is perpendicular to the main carpet and its other two runners in the sides.
“PAADARI” (or “TOODARI”)
Is a carpet with smaller dimensions than Ghaliche and is used in the landings or front of doorways, the sized are 30*40 and 60*40 centimeters.
Is small Ghali or rug which is used for laying down and resting .usually it is woven like a bag (and used material in its backside is “Gilim” (another type of woven rugs but more delicate) or velvet. "Poshtis" are normally woven in sizes of 50*80 – 130*80 _ 60*90 centimeters.
Was a measurement unit for measuring the length which is equal to 104 or 108 centimeters. The "zaro Nim" rugs sizes are usually 1.5*1.05 and 1.6*1.10 meter.
Is a type of Ghali with ritual function and is used for praying and is decorated mainly with “Mehrabi” designs (name of a design type in woven Iranian Carpets) and its size is usually 2.10*1.35-meter.
Is a Ghaliche with a size of 2.1*1.35 meter.
“DO ZARO CHAARAK”
(Panj Chaarak, Zaro Rob) Is a Ghaliche with the dimension is 1.40*1.70 meter.
Is a Ghaliche with a maximum length of 100 centimeters but its usual dimensions are 60*90 centimeters.
STYLE AND DESIGN
According to the Iran carpet corporation, Iranian carpets design are categorized into 19 main categories and lots of minor categories which are coming below:
ANCIENT AND ISLAMIC STRUCTURE DESIGNS
These designs are inspired by structures, tiling, geometrical and decorative shapes of buildings. Minor categories are created in a long time from some changes which happened in main categories. The most famous ones are Sheikh Lotfol-llah’s mosque, Mehrabi Koofi, Masjid Kabood (dark blue mosque), Maghbareh Sheikh Saffy, Sardar Imam Zadeh Mahroogh, Gonbad Ghaboos, Masjid Shaah Isfahaan, Takht Jamshid, Taagh Bostaan, Taagh Kasraa (Eivaan Madaaen) and Zir Khaki.
SHAAH ABBASI DESIGNS
All Shaah Abbasi designs are designed based on the use of the famous “Shaah Abbasi Flower” in these designs.in these types of design the designers combine the Shaah Abbasi flowers with other types of designs like Ancient and Islamic structure designs and that’s how they present different kinds of designs. Sub-branches of this group are: Lachak Toranj Shaah Abbasi, Afshaan Shaah Abbasi, Shaah Abbasi Derkhti, Shaah Abbasi Sheikh Saffi, and Shaah Abbasi Jaanevari
SHAAH ABBASI LACHAK TORANJ
This design has been used for old books and leather covers from a long time ago. Those carpets which are woven according to this design are having a central Toranj in a shape of circle or rhombus, that usually is having two “Sar Toranj” on its top and bottom or on its sides and also four corners of the main ground is decorated with four similar design with the name of “Lachak”. Some of the Shaah Abbasi designs are not having those four Lachaks in the corners and they are called “Shaah Abbasi Toranj Daar”.
SHAAH ABBASI AFSHAAN
This type of design doesn’t have the central “Toranj” and those four Lachaks in the corners and the whole carpet is covered with “Islimy” flowers and leaves with a circle and semilunar lines.
SHAAH ABBASI TORREH DAAR
This design has got an elegant Toranj in the center and its main character is the tresses which are sited around the carpet in series. In another word in these kinds of designs, Lachaks are not formed of ¼ of Toranj and are formed in tresses and coming in series around the carpet.
SHAAH ABBASI TASSAROFI
This design has been formed by creating some changes in the main structures of Shaah Abbasi designs such as eliminating the Lachaks and using the half-Totanjes in the sides of the carpet and also using decorative frames and epigraphs in symmetry on sides.
This type of designs is mainly formed with circular branches among the leaves. These branches are abstract trees. Islimy comes in lots of types and is usually repeating in forms but it’s also a predominate design in some carpets. The most famous Islimy is called Dahan Ajdar (mouth of a dragon) which, the branches will be divided into two symmetry parts at the end of it and look like dragon’s jaws and some nodes are decorating the branches in different parts which are mainly called Islim. Maybe the word “Islimy” is originated from the word “Islim” which means node or maybe this word is a short version of the word “Islam” as we know this design is used a lot in Islamic arts. This design has a lot of sub-branches as well such as Islimy, Islimy Bandy, Islimy Shekaste, Islimy Dahan Ajdar, Islimy Lachak Toranj, Islimy Toranj Daar and Islimy Maari.
In most of the carpet designs, their designs are continues and connected in a way that it looks like the painter has not stopped the painting-brush movement from the beginning till the very last moment, but in Afshaan designs flowers, leaves and branches are scattered in the drawn design in a way that looks like they are connected anymore and that’s why this design is called Afshaan (means scatter in Persian) but in this type of design a lots of variety and changes have been made and a lots of sub-branches is originated from Afshaan as well such as, Afshaan Islimy, Afshaan Khataee, Afshaan Bandy, Afshaan Shekaste, Afshaan Gol Anaari, Afshaan Shaah Abbasi, Afshaan Shaakheh Pich, Afshaan Dasteh Gol, Afshaan Heivaan Daar and Afshaan Toranj Daar.
BOTTHEH-EE ( BOTTEH JEGHEH)
Botteh-ee is the abstraction of the cypress tree. Iranian carpets curved bush which is called “ Botteh Jegheh” are coming in different forms and sizes in designs. There are different aspects of view for Botteh and its drawing origin, such as its similarity with the holy fire of Zoroastrians, pine fruit, water drop, cypress, palm branch, bird of kindness and …
Bushes form and its inspiration in different designs can be found in different sizes in a way that sometimes a few numbers of them are enough to cover the whole carpet design but most of the time they are settled in small sizes in parallels in the core or even in series in the margins and also they can be seen in broken styles as well.
Bushes form (Botteh-ee) can be found in carpets of these cities:
Kermaan, Sanandaj, Hamedan, Kashan, Saraaband, and Qom. The most famous Botteh-ee designs are Botteh Jegheh(بته جقه), Botteh Shaakh Gavazn, Botteh Termeh, Botteh Saraabandy, Botteh Khergheh-ee, Botteh Ghalamkaar Isfahaan, Hasht Gol, Botteh Kordestani or Hasht Botteh, Botteh Mir Shekaste, Botteh Lachak Toranj, Botteh Sanandaj, Botteh Afshari, Botteh Bazoo bandy, Botteh Baadaamy and Botteh Maadar va Farzand.
Most of the Eghtebasi designs are too similar to the Iran frontier zones carpet designs and neighbor countries and even other countries carpets designs and that’s why they are called Eghtebasi which means adopted (from).Ghafghaazi and Gooblany are some of its examples.
BANDY ( OR VAAGIREH-EE)
The word “ Bandy” is used to describe the act of a small piece repetition from a design in length or width of the carpet, as these pieces are joined together in the repetition they are called “Band Bandy” ( something which is attached to something else in repetition) or “Vaagereh”. Sub-branches of this branch are:
Bandy Islimy, Bandy Pichak,Bandy Shekaste, Bandy Katibeh-ee, Bandy Mostofy, Bandy Varaamin or Minaa Khaani, Bandy Ghaaleb Kheshty or Lozi, Bandy Toranj Daar , Bandy Derakhty, Bandy Ghaab Ghaabi, Bandy Shir Skekari or Baazoo Bandy, Bandy Sarvy, Bandy Adamaki or Molla Nasreddin, Bandy Bakhtiari, Bandy Majlesi, Bandy Khooshe Angoory, Bandy Shaakheh Gavazn Heivaan Daar, Bandy Khaatam Shiraazi and Bandy Dasteh Gol.
BANDY MINA KHANI
The old examples of this type of design can be found in old carpet designs of Kurdistan, Bijaar and Saavoj Bolaagh zones. The Mina Khaani design is a unified design which covers the whole carpet and can be found in many parts of Iran such as Hamedan, Chaahaar Mahalo Bakhtiari and Ghaaenaat.
The Islimy lines and forms are connected together and combined with some flowers such as Khataee or Shaah Abbasi and will cover the main part of the carpet.
BANDY BAAZOO BANDY
Name of this design has been inspired from the bracelets and belts forms, that Iranians used to give them their heroes and athletes in old times and these forms are used to make a continues and uniform design. The frame designs and their paintings were the carpet designers, inspirational hints and by repeating these designs beautiful carpet designs were created.
In this type of design polygon frames with floral ornamentations are forming two frames with one flower or connected in a line together.
BANDY SHAAKH GAVAZN HEIVAAN DAAR
The curvy hartshorn is the main basic character of forming the Bandy Shaakh Gavazn Heivaan Daar design.in the core of this type of design, the flowers with their leaves and buds are limited by a design which is too similar to curvy Hartshorne as well as the flowers are mainly covering the carpet course in a symmetry way.
In “Bandy Shaakh Gavazn Heivaan Daar “ design some tiny animals, too similar to gazelle and deer can be found in different part of the carpet and beside the flowers. Around these designs are usually decorated with curly tiny Islimy lines which are embracing small flowers.
As the plants and trees design were always too blessed to ancient Iranians, so the carpet-weavers were too concern about it as well, this type of design is still weaving in many parts of Iran but the carpet experts believe Kermaan is where it is originated from.
The main is done by using the branches and leaves in carpet designing, but in this type, it is tried to protect the parallelism between the design and nature. The famous Derakhty designs are:
Derakhty Jaanevary or Heivaan Daar, Derakhty Sabzy Kaar or Aab Namaa, Derakhty Toranj Daar, Derakhty Sarvy and Derakhty Goldaany.
DERAKHTY HEIVAAN DAAR
In this design, some birds can be seen in the middle of the branches and leaves and some animal which is grazing or laying down the trees as well.
DERAKHTY SHEKAAR GAAHY
When there are some hunters on horses or on foot in the course or margin of the carpet, the Derakhty design will be known as Shekaar Gaah.
DERAKHTY SABZY KAAR
If a lake in turquoise-coloured in the middle of the carpet, the carpet design is called Derakhty Sabzy Kaar or Aab Namaa. There is nothing as the complete form of a tree and these are the branches and blooming tree stalk as the main design character.
The “Derakhty Sabzy Kaar” is one of the famous designs which is originated from the “Raaver” city in the “Kermaan” province, about sixty years ago and interred to the beautiful Iranian carpet designs and nowadays, weavers from Kashan, Isfahan, Qom, and Tehran are interested in weaving this type of design.
that must be said, that most of the European know the trees in the designs as a good sign and a reminder of life permanence, prosperity, and happiness.
TURKAMAN OR BOKHARA
The design of Turkman carpets is known as the tribal and designs and the colony people, that are weaved offhand and without any determinate design. The sub-branches of this type of design are:
Turkamany Ghaaleb Yamoony, Turkamany Shaaneh-ee, Ghazaal Goaz (gazelle’s eye), Turkamany Akhaal, Turkamany Chaahaar Ghaab, Turkamany Khourjiny va Ghaashoghy.
The main character of this style is using the hunt paintings and hunting-grounds in a way that a hunter or a horse rider is hunting a gazelle or any other animal by an arrow and a bow. Sub-branches of this style are:
“Shekaar Gaah Derakhty”, “Shekaar Gaah Toranj Daar”, Shekaar Gaah Ghaabi, Shekaar Gaah Lachak Toranj, and Shekaar Gaah Saraasary.
The course of the carpets are divided into numbers of different frames or parts which are sited in continues disciplined rows and each frame is decorated with different flowers or leaves. This style’s sub-branches are:
“GHABBI ISLIMY”, “Ghaaby Qurany Kermaan” or “ Sotouny”
All the designs of this group are designed based on natural flowers, especially light colored flower roses, such as yellow, blue and red. Sub-branches of Gol Farang design are:
Gol Farang Bijaar”, “Gol Farang Dasteh Goli “,” Gol Farang Gol-o Bolbol”, “Lachak va Toranj Gol Farang”, “Afshaan Gol Farang” and….
Many flowerpots can be found in the Goldaany designs, in different sizes and that’s why this style is called “Goldaany”, in fact, “Goldaan” means flowerpot in Persian and “Goldaany” means something which contains some flowerpot or is similar to flowerpot.
Sometimes a big flowerpot full of flowers is covering the whole carpet and sometimes some small flowerpot are sited around the carpet course in summitry or they are covering the whole carpet in a continues rows. Sub-branches of this style are:
“Goldaany Khaataa-ee”, “Goldaany Do Tarafeh”,” Goldaany Mehraaby”,” Goldaany Saraasary”, “Goldaany Zellol Soltan” (“Golo Bolbol”), “Goldaany Haj Khaanoomy”,” Goldaany Tekraary”, “Goldaany Lachak Toranj” and “Goldaany Yek Tarafeh”.
GOLDAANY ZELLIL SOLTAN
it is one of the sub-branches of Goldaany designs which is having birds on sides of the flowerpot instead of handles and it is full of flowers.
GOLDAANY HAJ KHAANOOMY
It is of the “Goldaany” style sub-branches, which is most famous among the “Ghashaghaa-ee” people and it is called “ Naghsh-e Nazem” in Shiraz city, and the Ghaliche (rug) with this design is called “Nazem Kashkooly”.one of the significant point about this style is proportions observance as well as the size and dimensions of the similar repeated objects throughout the carpet.
It is said that the name “ Haj Khaanoomy” has come from a lady called “ Haj Khaanoom Jahaan Aaraa Bee-bee” who has made such a great effort for “Ghashghaa-ean” carpet(carpet style of Ghashaghaa-ee tribal) weaving art.
The word “Mehraab” means “altar “ in Persian and the word “Mehraaby” is referred to whatever which looks like “ altar”. The altar shape is the inspirational object to carpet designers for this creating this style, those designs which are having this semicircular altar, are not having hunting scene usually, as well as using the trees and flowers to visualizing the paradise and it is hardly tried to implanting the holiness of the altar to the observer as a spiritual place.
The main key of this style is altering which can be seen with a hanged candelabrum from altar’s arch or some trees and flowerpot are used as its decoration or sometimes the altar is standing over two big column which is placed in two sides of the altar.
MAHI DAR HAM
It is one of the most famous and current designs in Iranian carpet designs and it mainly comes with a “Vaagireh” ( or Mahi (is the name of a design that is fully covered with the repetition of a small object in the whole carpet) that is repeated in length and width of the carpet.in this design, a rhombus shape is in the middle of the carpet and four other triangles are sited on its four sides and fully covered with “Mahi” design.
“Mahi Dar Ham” designs are famous with different names in different part of Iran and the most important ones are:
“Mahi Heraty”, “Mahi Faraahaan”, “Mahi Zanboury”, “Mahi Kurdistan” and “Zire Mahi”.
The Moharramaat designs are having an object from a design, which is repeated in length of the carpet and the width of the carpet is divided into some rows and each row is continued specified color and design from start till the end so the carpet is stripped. This design is called Ghalamdaany in some part of the Iran, the sub-branches of Moharramaat are:
Ghalamdaany Saraasary, Gol Riz or Kaf Saadeh and Botteh (means bush) Ba Kaf-e Alvan.
Geometrical shapes are used in this style of design and that’s why it is called Hendesy which means Geometrical in Persian. Usually, the lines are angular and they don’t move in arches and circles .main sub-branches of this style are :
Hendesy Bandy Ghaabi, Hendesy Toranj Daar, Hendesy Moharramaat, Hendesy Lachak Toranj (Shaakheh Shekaste), Hendesy Kaf Saadeh, Hendesy Khataee, Hendesy Setareh ( Moozaaeek), Hendesy Khaanoom Shiraazi and Hendesy Joshaghaany.
This design is one of the oldest designs in Iranian carpet designs and the designs have been created from native carpet-weavers’ mind. Nature and their living environment are reflected in the most simple way in their carpet designs, they are not following the regular design and have their own beauty. The carpet designers have transferred this style from one region to another so that it is admitted from most western part of Iran to the most eastern part of Iran. This style sub-branches are mainly from those regions that the designs were circulated in there from the beginning or they are in the name of the people who had great influence in the area or ordered the design. The old and famous names of this group are:
Heibat Loo( related to Fars province), Ghashghaa-ee Botteh, Afshari, Khaatoony, Ardebil, Mezloghaan, Khamseh, Saaveh, Tafresh, Heriss, Goraavaan, Zanjaan, Meshkin Shahr, Bakhtiaary, Kurdy, Yelmeh, Gabbeh(Khod Rang),Sistaan , Ferdows,Saalaar Khaany, Yaghoob Khaany, Sang Chooby, Ali Mirzaa-ee, Jaan Beigy, Jaanamaazy, Javeen, Moosaa Abaad, Balochistan, Veis, Gharjeh, Seneh, Dasteh Gol.
In addition to mentioned designs that each and every one of them has their own specified names and histories, some other designs are created out of the composing of two or more designs together and the word “ Talfighy” means composed of two or more object together. Sub-branches of this style are:
Shaakheh Pich Toranj Daar, Selseleh-ee Toranj Daar, Talfighy Lachak Toranj, Goldaany Band Islimy, Talfighy Toranj Daar, Talfighy Toranj Toranji Kaf Saadeh, Talfighy Lachak Toranj Kaf Saadeh, Talfighy Lachak Toranj Sabzy Kaar Kaf Saadeh and Talfighy Bandy Dasteh Gol.
GOL FARANG DESIGNS
The main key elements of this style are red roses with regularly five or eight rose leaf in a bunch of flowers which are repeated in the whole carpet.
Sometimes Gol Farang is designed in the flower pot and its other types names are:
Gol Farang Bijaar, Bazoo Bandy, Dasteh Gol, Mostofy and…..
GOL FARANG MOSTOFY
The title “Mostofy” was honored from kings to their functionaries. This style has mainly common in cities of Arak, Tabriz, and Bijaar and it’s most probably referred to one of the Mortifies from Qajar Period, basically, this style is formed by some rhombus which is combined with “Gol Farang “ designs and decorative branches or even sometimes Islimy designs are used for more decoration.
GOL FARANG LACHAK TORANJ
In this style the central “Toranj” is fully surrounded with red roses and "Gol Farang" flowerpots and the recognizable difference of the design and the color of “Lachak”, from the main base, has created an elliptical shape right in the center of the carpet which the central “Toranj” is bragging in it. Wide margins in this style reflect the designs and main colors of the basement.