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Perhaps the history of carpet weaving started when the first nomadic and tribal societies began to take shape on Earth thousands of years ago. The need for comfort and warmth during seasonal changes and protection from climatic phenomena forced the man to learn how to employ the most abundant raw materials that, at that time, were more readily available to him to answer his needs. Wool from herds of domesticated sheep and goats, cotton from the fields of early agricultural communities, and silk were the most available materials to the inhabitants of western and central Asia during the early stages of civilization.
In the poetic book of Shah-Nameh, the Iranian epic poet Ferdowsi dates back carpet weaving to the time of the ancient Pishdadian Dynasty when Tahmureth, the third king of the dynasty, among other crafts, introduced the art of carpet weaving to his people. The Tabari Book of History also discusses carpets woven using animal hair and wool during the same historical era.
The oldest registered sign of carpet weaving dates back to the bronze age after finding a special knife used as a carpet weaving tool in a grave excavated by archeologists in northern regions of modern Iran.
Also, archeological discoveries in Shahr-e- Sukhteh ( the Burnt City), situated in the Sistan-Baluchistan province in the southeastern region of Iran, bear witness that the inhabitants of the city were well familiar with the weaving techniques to produce floor coverings for their homes and dwellings when the town was at the height of its flourishing era from 3500-2800 BC.
The Greek historian, Xenophon, mentions that the ancient city of Sardis prided itself on its hand-woven carpets, decorated with the designs and motifs of the mystical creature Lamassu and human figurines.
One of the oldest records of hand-woven carpet was found as a bas-relief on the walls of an ancient palace in the historical city of “Neynava” located at the banks of the river Tigris in Mesopotamia. But the oldest hand-woven carpet found so far, and remaining, is the Pazyryk Carpet. Russian archeologists discovered the rug in their 1949 excavation of the tomb of a Scythian king in the Altay mountains. The carpet, roughly sized 189x189 cm, using carbon-dating methods, is dated back as far as 500-400BC and is now being kept at the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, Russia. The experts believe it was made during the Achaemenian or Parthian rule in Persia, as most motifs and designs of the carpet resemble those famous during these two dynasties.

Other historical records and findings show the art of carpet weaving was popular among people of the ancient and historic city of Hecatomphylis (or Shahre-e Qumis), located in the modern Central Iran province of Semnan.
But Perhaps Baharestan Carpet can be considered the most famous hand-woven carpet in the history of Persia. As mentioned by historians, it was a large carpet used in the court of the last king of the Sassanid Dynasty. It is said that the carpet was woven, along with other regular materials, using silk, gold, and silver threads and decorated with precious stones.

The spread of Islam into the Persian Empire and starting from the first Hijri century ( about 637-651 ), prohibition of using human motifs and patterns due to Islamic teachings forced the Iranian carpet weavers to develop and innovate new patterns and designs primarily based on floral and geometric patterns and thus starting a new era in the weaving of Persian hand-woven carpets.
During the Abbasid caliphate ( 750 – 1517 AD), a tendency towards a more luxuriant and palatial lifestyle prompted a growing taste for more decorative and luxurious carpet designs and makes. The famous Arab explorer of the 14th century, Ibn Battuta, also remarks about the glamour and grandeur of the Persian hand-woven carpets he encountered during his travels to the court of Ilkhaniate viceroy of Khorasan province, Ghazan Khan, and the glamour of carpets used at the holy shrine of Imam Reza (PBUH), in the city of Mashhad in north-east of Iran.
There has also been mention of large carpet weaving workshops in the city of Sabzevar in the Khorasan region during the reign of Theimorit rule and the use of miniature drawing techniques by Iranian designers of the time, The Safavid Period.
But only in the Safavid Dynasty ( 1501-1736 ) did the art of carpet weaving in Persia reach its heights. The political stability and robust economic situation that prevailed for most of the Safavid nearly 230 years of rule, along with the start of direct trading routes with Europe, all helped to improve and expand carpet weaving in Iran during this time.
Shah Ismail I, the founder and the first king of the dynasty, established the first workshops for carpet weaving in his capital city of Tabriz to organize carpet weaving activities, a practice followed by his successor Shah Tahmasp I. As a result, many famous and renowned Persian carpets were woven during the long reign of Shah Tahmasp I.
Perhaps the most famous carpet of this time is the Ardebil carpet. The rugs were initially made in pairs for the shrine of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardebili by order of Shah Tahmasp, and one now is being kept at Victoria &Albert Museum in London and the other at the Los Angles Museum of Arts.
The original carpet measures 10.5mx5.3m, with a knot density of 47-54 knots/ cm, with 26 million knots. The material used in the weaving of the carpet is silk and wool.



By the time of coming to power of Shah Abbas I ( 1587-1629), the capital (by then was moved from Tabriz to Qazvin by Shah Tahmasp) was relocated to the newly constructed city of Isfahan (Esfahan) in central Iran.

Shah Abbas made great efforts to change carpet weaving from a tribal and rural craft to a more organized and moderated industry.

Large workshops were set up in Isfahan and Iran's major carpet weaving centers. Each region was encouraged to adapt to its native designs and weaving methods to safeguard the originality of the artistry and designs. In addition, standards were set for preparing raw materials such as wool, cotton, silk, and dyes to increase the quality of the carpets. Workshops started receiving orders from foreign traders, mainly from Europe, who began frequenting the Safavid court. As a result, carpet weaving flourished greatly during this period, both in terms of artisanal quality and the economic point of view.

Expansion of trading routes and construction of Caravanserais along the main roads connecting major Iranian trading cities which added greatly to the safety of the merchants and travelers, as well as political stability, all were significant elements that donated to the flourishing of carpet weaving during the Safavid Dynasty.

Pass-Through famous art museums of the world and collections of private art collectors bear witness to the exceptional and unparalleled artisanal craftsmanship of Iranian designers and carpet weavers of this era which any other nation could not rival.

The impact these measures had on the carpet weaving industry in Iran was so profound that even now, most famous Persian Carpet makes and designs are known by their original names designated to them during that era.

Another important event of that time was an expansion of international trade in Persian Carpets & Rugs. Many foreign companies, mainly from Europe, opened merchant houses in Iran to trade directly with the essential weaving centers.



In the final years of the Safavid Dynasty, they witnessed constant warring campaigns and the invasion of Hotaki clans from the east, which resulted in the subsequent fall of the capital city of Isfahan to their hand. The successive military campaigns and hostilities among warring factions significantly weakened Iran's economy and political stability for some years to come.

In 1736 Nader Shah Afshar ( from the Afshari tribe) claimed the throne from the last Safavid king and proclaimed himself The Shah of Persia. As a great military commander, he succeeded in succumbing to his enemies' submission and established the Afshari Dynasty, which lasted for sixty years. The political and social stability returned to the land once more during his rule. He moved the Iranian capital from Isfahan to the holy city of Mashhad in the northeastern province of Khorasan.

Here the story of The Persian Carpet starts once more.

The city of Mashhad ( Mash-had) became the new capital of carpet weaving activities, and Afshari designs and motifs became the new name in the art of Persian carpet weaving. The carpets woven in Mashhad and its subordinate cities bear distinctive properties and characteristics. They are known for their warm colors and robust structures, which make them suitable for most household use and long life but also for cheaper values, making them distinctive from carpets in other major carpet weaving centers of Iran. Today many regions are adapted to Afshari designs, and rugs and carpets designated the name Afshari Carpet are woven in many parts of Iran.

The Zandieh Dynasty had a short reign after the Afshari Dynasty fell. Iran's capital moved from Mashhad to Shiraz. During this time, there was relative peace and economic growth, especially under the reign of the first king, Karim-Khan Zand. The Zandieh worked to revive the economic dynamics of the Safavid era, with Karim-Khan allowing the British East India Company to open a trading post in Bushehr to revitalize foreign trade. Although there was no significant progress in carpet weaving during this time, the encouragement of artisanal works and fine arts led to the emergence of the School of Zandieh Art, which indirectly affected the art of carpet weaving to the time of the Qajar Dynasty.



Carpet weaving continued momentum during the Qajarieh era well into the Twentieth century. Perhaps the most significant development of this period is not the art of carpet weaving but the commercialization of the Persian carpet industry. The reign of Qajarieh, which lasted for nearly 140 years from 1785 to 1925, is marked by the rapid development of international relations between Iran and other countries, especially with Europe.

Many European countries started sending emissaries to Iran, seeking new economic opportunities. On the other hand, the Iranian government seeking to revive its economy after years of political turmoil and prolonged wars, observing European countries' industrial development and economic achievements, tried to benefit from the new environment by allowing foreign companies to expand their commercial activities in Iran.

Major trading companies from England, France, Italy, Germany, Austria, and Holland started opening offices in major Iranian trading cities such as Tabriz, Tehran, Isfahan, and Kerman.

Many found great opportunities in the hand-woven Persian Carpet industry and initiated direct contact with significant carpet weavers in the main carpet-producing centers.

Companies such as Ziegler & Co started to invest heavily in the Iranian carpet weaving industry to respond to the growing need of the wealthy European aristocracy that had started to flourish during the industrial revolution in Europe.

New designs were offered to weavers to produce carpets according to new customers' tastes. Weavers ' interaction with European traders improved the dyeing techniques of materials such as wool, cotton, and silk.



Since the beginning of the Twentieth century, carpet weaving has undergone tremendous changes. Extensive improvements in preparation techniques of such raw materials as wool, cotton and, silk, and dyes, developments in new designs and patterns, more standardization of sizing of carpets and rugs, the introduction of higher quality raw materials imported from outside sources have considerably donated to the improvement of Persian Carpets & Rugs.s.

On the other hand, numerous organizations and companies were instituted to support the more organized production of Persian Carpet in Iran during the last several decades. Many Iranian higher education institutes offer extensive academic courses on carpet weaving techniques, from the art of designing to the final stages of producing genuine Persian Carpets.

Many governmental and private sector establishments support commercial aspects of carpet weaving by promoting and providing proper channels for marketing Persian Carpets worldwide.

The art of Persian Carpet Weaving is a never-ending story that shall be kept being told as long as the people who created it will keep doing so. A story so colorful and vivid as the colors and patterns that have given The Persian Carpet its universal pomposity and magical enchantment of the ages. A story that has adorned the life of human beings, whether by those who have put generations of effort into creating it or those who have obtained it to decorate their lives with it and were fascinated by what they called The Magic Carpet.



Name: Abdul Karim Rafiei
Dated of Birth: 1901 A.c (1218 according to Jalali Calendar)
Birthplace: Araak City


Abdul Karim Rafi-ee was born in the 1218 solar year (1840 A.c ) in Araak, his father was a professional carpet weaver who had a workshop for carpet weaving at his house, and he could sell the carpets weaved by his students. Abdul Karim was five when his father sent him to an old school in "Samsaamiyeh" in Araak, and after a while, some friends recommended sent he for learning to draw carpet plans.


He could become pretty good at coloring and designing and main elements of drawing carpet plans in fact. He loved those techniques in a way that he would hardly work on them even at late nights most of the time and at the end after a lots of hard work he succeeded to establish a carpet designing center with help of two other professionals in carpet plan designing in Araak city and works of this designing center had become an attention point to companies which were owned by American and European residents in Araak city. They successfully supplied all the company orders only by recruiting 14 staffs.


After a while, Abdul Karim moved to Hamedan City. He started a new work with the partnership of "Haj Ahmed Sanaa-ee" In this job which took three years, he successfully created many designs for foreign companies. It is good to know that at the same time, most of the carpet weavers used to weave carpets based on the wrong manner, which didn't have any specific design. Rafique's good work experience caused "Haj Vakilul Roaayaa harmed any" order him numerous carpet designs for his big company.


His job was at his most famous levels in 1309 sun year ( in 1930 A.c ). He used to design fifty carpet designs per week based on orders from carpet companies for cities such as Malaayer – Toyieserkaan- Bijaar – Nahaavand so that carpet weavers of those cities would be able to weave their carpets based on suitable designs. Six years later, all the carpet designers of Hamedan City became concentrated and created a united company which survived for a few years till, in 1319 sun year (1941 A.c), Rafi-ee left Hamedan to expand his works and moved to Tehran. He was introduced to the association of "artists of beautiful arts "and started his job. In the 1339 sun year ( 1960 A.c), for disposing of Khorasan's exhibition of "Beautiful Arts of the Country, "Rafi-ee was sent to Khorasan province to collect the designs of the Khorasan carpet.


His study fields on this trip which took three months was on “Zari” and rugs designs which were in “Imam Reza “ ‘s treasury and museum of “Astaan Ghods Razavi”(استان قدس رضوی) ( In Khorasan, Mashhad city ) and at the end of this studies has gathered more than forty five worthy carpet plans and designs which are kept in “Beautiful Arts “ workshop. He has done lots of a great job during his activities in Iran’s Beautiful Arts.



Khaanoom Design / Birjand Design / Araak Design / Turkman Design / Zaabol Design / Zahedan design / Shiraz Design / Ardebil Design / Kordestani Seh Rangy Design / Shaakh Gavazn va Ahoo Design


These designs were mainly woven in Ghali sizes and exhibited in the leading Ghali exhibition at the Finance Ministry. Other "Ghaliche" s were displayed in 1961 AD (1340, according to the Jalaly Calendar). Here are some of the principal works that have been sent to other countries in Ghali or Ghaliche shapes:

The Ghali with Kashan design style is one of his exciting works. It was created in 1954 CE (1336, according to Jalali Calendar) with dimensions of 86 by 64 cm. It was sent to the Iranian Embassy in London in 1965 CE (1339, according to Jalali Calendar).

After completing the Iranian Pavilion in UNESCO (Paris), a new design was proposed to Ghali by the cultural ministry. The carpet has a UNESCO logo in the center and is decorated with "Shaah Abbasi" flowers in the "Islimy Khataee" style. The 6x6 meter carpet is adorned with flower-filled Lachaks and "slimy" style borders.

Master Rafiei-ee left several valuable pieces, including some exhibited in Tehran's museums, after receiving another design for the international communication circular Hall in Geneva from the Ministry of Post and Telegraph.



Name: Ali Ashraf Kashani
Dated of Birth: 1963 A.c (1280 according to Jalali Calendar)
Birthplace: Kashan City

Ali Ashraf Kashani was born in 1901A.c (1280 Sun Year according to Jalali calendar) in Kashan city, and after finishing his primary education, he became interested in “Gilding” ( or “Tazhib” (gilding) is an Arabic word which has been derived from “Zahab” meaning “gold.” Gilding currently means to draw beautiful patterns of plants or geometrical shapes on the margins of books) and little by little his attention turned to carpet weaving. He learned all the symbols of this style from age 14 to 18. He continued his practices under the supervision of master Naaser Mostafavi and learned the fundamentals of staining and dotted painting.

To get more informed on the way that he stepped, he continued his learnings under the supervision of Master Mirza Mahmood Khaan Mosavari about the fundamentals of designing. Then he moved to Tehran and started working in the east office (responsible for most carpet weaving workshops). He established another branch of carpet designing in cooperation with Mirza Mahdi Javaheri within six months in Qum City.

After a while, he was invited to Qazvin by Lesaan Al-super, the governor of Qazvin then. He moved to Qazvin to supply carpet designing processes and carpet weaving correction, and he established several carpet weaving workshops in that city.

Ali Ashraf Kashani used lots of the experiences of Master Doroodi, and he drew about 18 designs for palaces, carpets, and gilding of religious commandments pages which are mainly kept in the National Art Museum.



Name: Ali Ebrahimi
Dated of Birth: 1965 A. c (1282 Sun Year according to Jalali Calendar)
Birthplace: Tehran city


Master Ali Ebrahimi born in 1965 A.c (1282 according to Jalali Calendar) in Tehran and as he was so interested in the world of line and color, he started painting and designing carpets after he finished his studies.

His entrance to the ministry of economy in 1992 A.c (1309 Sun Year according to Jalali Calendar ), as the carpet designer and who draws carpets designs, led him to officially get hired in Department of industries. He became responsible for repairing the painting of Safi Abad’s palace walls.

Ali Ebrahimi as was teaching in Art School of Kamal al-Molk’s Paintings, as the master of carpet designing for several years, was working in Miniature (Miniature painting is a traditional style of art that is very detailed, often referred to as painting or working “in miniature”. Because of their origins as illuminations, they are also painted to have as smooth of a surface as possible) painting fields under the supervision of the Master Hossein Taher Zadeh and spent some time on painting as well.

This variation in different art fields caused him to be able to create such magnificent pieces. Most of his works include “Shekaar Gaahy”, Plants, flowers, trees, grass, bushes and it shows how much he was a deep link with nature and he got inspired by nature for choosing the right color for his designs.



Name: Rassam Arabzadeh
Date of Birth: 1914 A.c (1293 according to Jalali Calendar)
Place of birth: Tabriz

Master Abolfath Ratify, also known as, Master Abolfath Rassam Arabzadeh, is of the most distinctive carpet weaving of Iran History. He was born in 1914 A.c (1293 according to Jalali Calendar) in Tabriz and his father Hossein Zaidi Ratify also known as, Sayyad Arab was one of the students of the famous painter kamal-ol Molk which he took the painting as his main profession, he was an immigrant Arab immigrated to Iran from Hijaz and so they were called Arab.

Since his childhood, he did learn the design and color from his father. He did his primary education in Maktab as the Iranian traditional education system and he did learn Holly Quran and alphabets in that time. He also studied in Adib School, Tehran, Rashidiyeh School of Tabriz and Tabriz Art School was the later educations of his young Ages.

One of his first products is weaving a portrait from a well-known face. He tried to implement the Valce Delave French Kublin Pattern and he redesigned it as the carpet weaving pattern, but by starting the weaving the design he realized that he has got a small knowledge on color combinations. So he collected the information on combinations of color from a friend which was working in a German Color paint factory, then by applying the knowledge that he had he finished his first carpet by name of Dance of Angles.

After experiencing the caricature and weaving different brand logos of companies, he started weaving rug and carpets exclusively. In this phase, his innovation in weaving started to show up. His first impressions were designed based on modern designing principles, like considering the scales and proportions but his most distinctive characteristics are designed which is called incorrect designs.

These patterns are a combination of different designs in opposition to current popular principles. As the popular and current methods of weaving the rugs and carpets were not quite applicable to his design patterns, by a huge effort he innovated the “Hanging Knot “ and other weaving methods.

50th and 40th decades are the efflorescence era of Arabzadeh. After a long period of efforts, he finally produced very distinctive material.



Name: Ahmad Archang
Date of Birth: 1913 A.c (1292 according to Jalali Calendar)
Place of birth: Isfahan

He Was Born in Isfahan 1913 A.c (1292 according to Jalali Calendar) With his passion for painting after finishing his primary educations, he started his true passion of painting. As a self-thought artist, inspired by the designs of the castles and the architecture of Safavid era, he started practicing the painting skill.

The designs of Naghsh Jahaan Sq. in Isfahan had a great effect in the implantation of his taste and he was always enchanted by the Sheik Lotfollah Mosque and Masjid Shah Mosque.

Occupation in a carpet weaving factory next to the Naghsh Jahan Sq. provided the best opportunity for the practice to be inspired by the influence of their designs .also paintings of the Raza Abbasi caused more influence and inspiration to produce the more genuine designs of the Safavid Era.

He passed away in spring 1396 due to cancer.



Name: Jafar Rashtiyan
Date of Birth: 1925 A.c (1304 according to Jalali Calendar)
Place of birth: Isfahan

The Late Master Jafar Rashtiyan was born in 1925 A.c (1304 according to Jalali Calendar) in Isfahan in an Artist Family. The Sudden Death of the father put him under the supervision of his Uncle whom he was one of the distinctive miniaturists and painters of his Time and to be educated by him in painting.

The Master Rashtiyan, the painter, Miniaturist and carpet designer in one of the most distinctive artists of Isfahan and during the precious life he has left so many distinctive students in different fields of the art which from them Shokrani and Ebrahimiyan may be named.

The main entrance of the hall of “Abbasi Hotel” In Isfahan is a sample of his precious art reflections.



Name: Reza Shaker
Date of Birth:1912 A.c (1291 according to Jalali Calendar)
Place of birth: Isfahan

Born in 1912 A.c (1291 according to Jalali Calendar), he is one of the most elegant and top-level masters of coloring and carpet pointing in Isfahan. After finishing his primary education in old standards, started following his career in pointing and coloring of the carpets with Mr. Ahmad Archang.

Previously designs would not be colored as of today. It was left by the weaver to recolor the carpet on his or her own vision by providing the pointing of the carpet plan only. Also, the pointing was a complex process which was not an easy task to perform and was required to have proper experience and quality of the performer. The pattern of development of the knots was laid out in such a way that each knot was accommodated inside of each cell, and not in on the grids so that the outcome would not interfere the final design in term of aesthetic, beauty and the proportions.

By the presence of Mr. Sanei originally from Kashan to Isfahan, he enlighted the vision of Mr. Shaker on secrets of coloring of the carpet on the plan and by applying the new methods and personal taste and innovation in colors, the final result of recoloring of today was revealed.

In this period so many students have learned from him the principles of recoloring. the most famous student in his own era is Abbas Karbasiyoon.




The land surrounding Siberia’s Ukok Plateau is vast. Harsh in the winter, the region of Altai Krai is home to the Altai Mountains, the Ob River, and her estuaries. The plateau descends into the Pazyryk Valley, which contains ancient kurgans (burial mounds) in the style of the Scythian peoples who inhabited the area over two thousand years ago.

Archaeological digs began in the 1920s and unearthed a wealth of historically significant items that offered an intriguing insight into the little-known ancient nomadic tribes of the Pazyryk.

Archaeologists found remarkably well-preserved tombs in the ice of the 5th century BCE. Among the artifacts were mummies with tattooed flesh and hair, cloth saddles, a full-sized burial chariot, decorative figurines, and cannabis seeds with an inhalation tent.

St. Petersburg’s Hermitage Museum houses the oldest surviving piled rug, the Pazyryk Carpet. It features 24 cross-shaped figures of four stylized lotus buds in the central field and is framed by a border of griffins and 24 fallow deer.

The most comprehensive border contains representations of workhorses and men.” The website does not mention the ambiguity of the carpet’s origin. The Pazyryk Valley was located between active trade routes spanning the ancient world, with China to the east and Central Asia to the southwest. One of the mummies discovered- the Siberian Ice Maiden- was clothed in a wild silk tunic that likely originated in India. Some figurines were gilded, and gold was not native to the area.

The Pazyryk Carpet most likely came from Central Asia, though it is a tossup between Persia and Armenia. Both nations have traditions of carpet weaving spanning thousands of years, and the horses represented on the rug are nearly identical to horse riders on a frieze in the ancient Persian city of Persepolis. The possibility that the Pazyryks produced the rug is highly slim because the design's sophistication and elegance indicate a settled and cosmopolitan civilization, unlike the nomadic Pazyryks.

Based on a study of ancient artistic development, textile expert Ulrich Schurmann has concluded that the rug is of Armenian origin. The Persians also claim it as their own, believing it’s an artifact from the Achaemenid Empire. For now, the exact origin of the Pazyryk Carpet will remain a mystery, but its significance and beauty are forever eternal.




Over 1,200 village women have started weaving a giant carpet worth $8.5 million that will be the world's largest hand-knotted carpet ever. It will be made for the ShaikhzZayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi. Iran Carpet Company, with more than 70 years of Persian rug weaving history, is the contractor of this enormous carpet.

Weaving this carpet which will be 6,000 square meters, more significant than a football stadium and weighing about 48 tons, will take about 14 months for the weavers, who will work two shifts daily. It will be decorated with traditional Persian designs and natural colors with more than 2.2 billion knots.

The weaving began in March 2006 in Baghshan, 22 kilometers from Neyshabour, a village 800 km northeast of Tehran, and two nearby villages, close to Mashad in Khorasan Province, northeast of Iran.

The weavers are all experienced women between the ages of 15 and 60, supervised by 50 men acting as technical experts who will travel to Abu Dhabi to join the pieces at the mosque once the carpet is completed. The carpet will be made in 8 different parts.

The project has revived the carpet economy in northeastern Iran, which has a long history of carpet making.

The world's largest carpet was in the Qabus Azam Mosque in Muscat, Oman. It also was the work of Iranian carpet weavers and shipped to Oman in 2000. The Iran Carpet Company also made this carpet. It had an area of 5,000 square meters, weighing about 22 tons, and was valued at $5.2 million.